They date back some 75, years. The shells were deliberately perforated and strung for possible use as necklaces or clothing decoration. They are a clear marker of symbolically mediated behavior in early Southern African populations. The recovery of 75,year-old shell beads and engraved ochre at Blombos Cave, about two hundred miles to the east of the meeting site in Cape Town, suggests that the behavior of Middle Stone Age people was mediated by symbolism.
|Published (Last):||22 July 2006|
|PDF File Size:||14.25 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||15.32 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Gmail Famous sociologist Mircea Eliade coined the term homo religiosus to describe a kind of person who shares particular attitudes with all people of faith. If you want an in-depth understanding of the theory of homo religiosus and its background, you should take a moment to read over the previous post. We now move into the interior domain of the people who participate in these religions whom Eliade terms homo religiosus.
Do the similarities among world religions indicate a concomitant similarity among religious people? Eliade is convinced that they do: …Religious man assumes a particular and characteristic mode of existence in the world and, despite the great number of historico-religious forms, this characteristic mode is always recognizable.
Whatever the historical context in which he is placed, homo religiosus always believes that there is an absolute reality, the sacred, which transcends this world but manifests itself in this world, thereby sanctifying it and making it real.
He further believes that life has a sacred origin and that human existence realizes all of its potentialities in proportion as it is religious — that is, participates in reality. The gods created man and the world, the culture heroes completed Creation, and the history of all these divine and semidivine works is preserved in the myths. By reactualizing sacred history, by imitating the divine behavior, man puts and keeps himself close to the gods — that is, in the real and significant.
Where did this common, interior religious disposition come from? Did it come from the teaching of religious people within an already formed religious community, or rather did it come from something within homo religiosus himself — which he brought to the community of belief? Religious communities teach lessons and doctrines to their adherents — how their religious rituals function, the details of the myths, the meaning of various symbols, colors, and actions, the sacredness of particular places and times, etc.
Yet Eliade believes that this alone cannot make a religion. There must be people who are aware of the sacred, desire it, are passionate about it, and are fulfilled by it. They must also be capable of understanding the significance of sacred time, sacred place, sacred myth, sacred ritual, and sacred symbol.
If these interior dispositions were not antecedently present, traditional man would never have sought out religion and would certainly not have made it his center of meaning and the source of reality. Without an awareness of and desire for the sacred transcendent reality , traditional man would have found a substitute for the center of significance and source of reality — perhaps food, shelter, procreation, manhood, womanhood, knowledge, practical skills, etc.
No intelligent being will place something unintelligible and undesired at the center of meaning and reality. In light of this, it is likely that homo religiosus did not acquire his awareness of and desire for the sacred transcendent reality from a religious cult or community.
If he did not have an antecedent desire to connect with the transcendent reality, he would have been indifferent to sacred cult and community — like children who are indifferent to anything whose value they do not comprehend.
In contrast, homo religiosus is attracted to, fascinated by, and fulfilled by the sacred, re-presented in religious rituals and myths. He seeks out and participates in sacred ritual because he is aware of the sacred and understands its central significance in his life.
Here, we turn to the work of another sociologist, Rudolf Otto. The second pole, on the other hand, is associated with a sense of fascination with, desire for, and passion for the transcendent reality arising out of a sense of its goodness and care.
In fact, the numinous experience cannot explain the four-fold content of the religious intuition — it is, in the end, merely another way of describing that intuition. However, it can explain why human beings have a sense of transcendent reality that causes them to passionately desire and seek it in sacred places, rituals, myths , and symbols. What else could explain the common human desire for, interest in, and passion about the sacred?
What else could provoke human beings to surrender individually and collectively to a non-empirical reality? What else could provoke human beings to place such a reality at the center of their individual and collective universe? Merely natural explanations fall far short of what is needed to explain this most peculiar common desire to invest ultimate significance and reality in what is invisible, out of reach, wholly Other, and uncontrollable.
If no alternative explanation can be found, then it is likely that our inner experience of the numen transcendent reality has incited our interest in, desire for, fascination with, and surrender to the sacred. Yet, the numinous experience does not account for everything in the religious intuition of homo religiosus.
Thus it seems that the sacred transcendent reality manifests itself in an additional way — in an intuitive way — building upon the numinous manifestation of itself — to incite us to look for hierophany, to form religious community around it and to be fulfilled by it.
When two distinct data sets connect causally it enhances the probative force of both and provides a broader and deeper explanation of our relationship to the transcendent.
Gmail Famous sociologist Mircea Eliade coined the term homo religiosus to describe a kind of person who shares particular attitudes with all people of faith. If you want an in-depth understanding of the theory of homo religiosus and its background, you should take a moment to read over the previous post. We now move into the interior domain of the people who participate in these religions whom Eliade terms homo religiosus. Do the similarities among world religions indicate a concomitant similarity among religious people?
Life and works Eliade studied philosophy at the University of Bucharest, receiving an M. After studying in Calcutta primarily under the Sanskrit scholar Surendranath Dasgupta —30 , he spent six months practicing Yoga at Rishikesh under the direction of Swami Shivananda — Returning to Bucharest, he wrote a dissertation on the comparative history of techniques of Yoga, for which he received a Ph. Appointed assistant to Nae Ionescu, the scholar he most admired, Eliade joined the faculty of the University of Bucharest and taught courses in philosophy, religion, and Hinduism and Buddhism. In the s he became an influential literary figure in Romania , especially after publication of his hugely successful novel Maitreyi ; Bengal Nights. Starting in the late s, scholarship on Eliade and his legacy has often focused on charges and countercharges about his political life and views, especially his political writings and involvement in Romania in the s and in London and Portugal during the war.
Wiley-Blackwell, , S. In: The American Museum Journal. Band 17, , S. In: Naturwissenschaftliche Wochenschrift. In: Comptes Rendus Palevol. Band 2, Nr.
Homo Religiosus ( II.B: God’s Presence to Our Consciousness)