Artemisia pontica Roman wormwood Artemisia arborescens tree wormwood, or sheeba in Arabic is an aromatic herb indigenous to the Middle East used in tea, usually with mint. A few species are grown as ornamental plants , the fine-textured ones used for clipped bordering. All grow best in free-draining sandy soil, unfertilized, and in full sun. Artemisia stelleriana is known as Dusty Miller, but several other species bear that name, including Jacobaea maritima syn.
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry.
Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components.
The large genus Artemisia L. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils.
This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Keywords: Artemisia L.
Plants have been used as drugs by humans since thousands of years ago. Artemisia L. It belongs to the important family Compositae Asteraceae , one of the most numerous plant groupings, which comprises about 1, genera and over 20, species. Within this family, Artemisia is included in the tribe Anthemideae and comprises over species, which are mainly found in Asia, Europe and North America [ 1 ]. A large number of members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as medical and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine, and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry [ 2 ].
Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients or secondary metabolites, which work through various modes of action. Secondary metabolism in a plant not only plays a role in its survival by producing attractants for pollinators, but it also acts as a chemical defence against predators and disease. According to the mode of extraction used, mostly distillation from the aromatic plants, essential oils contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenolic-derived aromatic and aliphatic components.
The large genus Artemisia from the tribe Anthemideae comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention because of their biological and chemical diversity, and essential oil production.
This review, after an ethnopharmacological presentation of the genus, will focus on significant recent — findings on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of the essential oils from Artemisia species. They are mostly perennial herbs dominating the vast steppe communities of Asia.
Asia has the greatest concentration of species, with accessions for China, in the ex-USSR, about 50 reported for Japan, and 35 species of the genus found in Iran. Artemisia species are frequently utilized for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses [ 3 ].
Some Artemisia species are used for crafting aromatic wreaths, and as a source of essential oils used in the flavouring of vermouth; more details are given below. Preparations of Artemisia abrotanum L. Nowadays, this perennial plant is used mainly for culinary or cosmetic purposes [ 4 ]. Artemisia absinthium L. The aerial parts are present in many gastric herbal preparations, in dietary supplements, and in alcoholic beverages, for example absinthe products, which are enjoying a resurgence of popularity all over the world [ 5 ].
In Afro-Asian countries, Artemisia abyssinica Schultz-Bip is used in folk medicine as an anthelmintic, antispasmodic, antirheumatic and antibacterial agent. Artemisia afra Jacq. It is widely used for numerous ailments including colds, coughs, diabetes, heartburn, bronchitis and asthma [ 7 ]. Artemisia annua L. Though originally growing in Asia and Europe, the plant is cultivated in Africa and used as a tea for the treatment of malaria.
Artemisinin has been identified as the anti-malarial principle of the plant, and artemisinin derivatives are nowadays established as anti-malarial drugs with activity towards otherwise drug-resistant Plasmodium infections [ 8 ]. Artemisia arborescens L.
It is native to the various habitats of the Mediterranean region, where it occurs as a shrub growing up to one metre in height. According to popular folklore, it is used as an anti-inflammatory remedy [ 9 ].
Artemisia argyi Levl. It is native to China, Japan and the far eastern parts of the former Soviet Union. It is used in herbal medicine for conditions of the liver, spleen and kidney [ 10 ]. The powdered leaves of Artemisia biennis Willd.
They have been applied externally in salves and washes by the native inhabitants of North American for treating sores and wounds, and internally to treat chest infections [ 11 ]. Artemisia campestris L. The leaves of this plant are widely used in traditional medicine as a decoction for their antivenin, anti-inflammatory, anti-rrheumatic and antimicrobial properties [ 12 ].
Artemisia cana Pursh. In Argentina, Artemisia douglasiana Besser. Artemisia dracunculus L. It also possesses a wide range of health benefits and has therefore been widely used as a herbal medicine. Two well-described cultivars Russian and French are used widely and differ in ploidy level, morphology and chemistry. The botanical and chemical constituents are closely detailed in the literature, the latter mainly focusing on its essential oil composition, which give its distinctive flavour [ 15 ].
Decoctions of leaves and stems of Artemisia frigida Willd. This plant is used as a flavouring agent and in a variety of cosmetics in Korea. It also has various biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antitumour and antibacterial properties [ 16 ].
Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss. Artemisia herba-alba Asso syn. Artemisia maritima L. Artemisia iwayomogi Kitamura is a perennial herb easily found around Korea. Artemisia judaica L. The inhabitants of north-eastern of Mexico use an infusion of leaves from Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. Artemisia princeps Willd. This plant has also been used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of inflammation, diarrhoea and many circulatory disorders [ 19 ].
Artemisia rubripes Nakai has been used as a traditional Korean medicine for stomach ache, vomiting, diarrhoea and as a haemostatic agent [ 16 ]. Artemisia scoparia Waldst. The success of A. It has been established that aerial parts of A. It possesses insecticidal, antibacterial, anticholesterolemic, antipyretic, antiseptic, cholagogue, diuretic, purgative and vasodilatatory activity, and is also used for the treatment of gall bladder inflammation, hepatitis and jaundice [ 4 ].
Artemisia spicigera C. This species serves as a critical habitat and food resource for many animals and invertebrates [ 13 ]. Artemisia vulgaris L. It has also been suggested to have other medicinal activities such as anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, carminative and anthelmintic properties, and has been used in the treatment of painful menstruation dysmenorrhoea and in the induction of labour or miscarriage [ 23 ].
Taxonomy The genus Artemisia is characterized by a wide range of morphological and phytochemical variability, which is associated with different geographical origins of the samples. The genus displays a huge ecological plasticity, with species occurring from sea level to high mountains and from arid zones to wetlands. Additionally, polyploidy is notably common and reported cytotypes differ in external morphology, anatomy, fertility and phytochemical cytogenetically [ 24 ].
Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from the Artemisia Genus Essential oils are volatile, natural, complex compounds characterized by a strong odour and are formed by aromatic plants as secondary metabolites. They are usually obtained by steam or hydro-distillation, although there are several methods for extracting them. These may include the use of liquid carbon dioxide and microwaves, but mainly involve low or high pressure distillation employing boiling water or hot steam.
In nature, essential oils play an important role in the protection of plants as antibacterials, antivirals, antifungals, insecticides and also against herbivores by reducing their appetite for such plants. They also may attract some insects, thereby favouring the dispersion of pollens and seeds, or repel other undesirable insects. Chemically, essential oils are very complex natural mixtures which can contain about 20—60 components at quite different concentrations.
Generally, these major components determine the biological properties of the essential oil. The components include two groups with different biosynthetical origins: the main group is composed of terpenes, and the other of aromatic and aliphatic constituents, all characterized by their low molecular weight. The strong and aromatic smell of some species of Artemisia genus is due mainly to high concentrations of volatile terpenes, constituents of their essential oils, especially in leaves and flowers.
The chemical composition of essential oils from the Artemisia genus has been extensively studied in several species from around the world. Many studies have shown that Artemisia species display significant intraspecific variations in the terpene constituents of their essential oils.
In some cases, the variation in the volatile components of these plants may occur during plant ontogeny or growth at different altitudes. The quality and yield of essential oils from Artemisia species is influenced by the harvesting season, fertilizer and pH of soils, the choice and stage of drying conditions, the geographic location, chemotype or subspecies, choice of plant part or genotype, or extraction method.
Reported constituents of Artemisia species are outlined in Table 1.
Abstract Background The six organic solvent extracts of Artemisia nilagirica were screened for the potential antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens and clinically important standard reference bacterial strains. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of A. The phytochemical screening of extracts was carried out for major phytochemical derivatives in A. Results All the extracts showed inhibitory activity for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria except for Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. The phytochemical screening of extracts answered for the major derivative of alkaloids, amino acids, flavonoids, phenol, quinines, tannins and terpenoids. Conclusion All the extracts showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains.
ABSTRACT: The phytochemicals of various parts of the plants mainly the secondary metabolites are well known for its high potential therapeutic values such as antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiplasmodial, antioxidant, insecticidal etc. In the present investigation an attempt was made to analyze the various phytochemicals present in Artemisia nilagirica Clarke Pamp which is wide spread and commonly grown for its religious importance and fragrance through GC-MS. Methanolic leaf extract of the A. The phytoconstituents of the target extract revealed high medicinal values in the pharmaceuticals industries. These compounds were separated by column chromatography for further authentication of the therapeutic values.
Leaves are shortly stalked or stalkless; leaf blade below densely gray arachnoid woolly, above gray or yellowish woolly or becoming hairless. Uppermost leaves pinnatipartite; leaflike bracts 3-lobed or entire. Flower-heads are stalkless or short-stalked, erect, borne in broadly conical, almost leafless panicle with obliquely spreading, up to 18 cm long branches. Florets are , yellowish, all fertile. Disk florets are , bisexual, basally glandular. Achenes are brown, oblong or obovoid, about 1.