Case report Ectodermal dysplasia in pediatric dentistry Abstract Ectodermal dyspasia ED is a hereditary disease that includes genetic and environmental changes. ED causes hypodontia, dystrophic nails, sparse hair and dental anomalies. Oral rehabilitation treatment for pediatric patients with ED is difficult because of continuous development and craniofacial growth. The aim of this study was to present a case report of oral rehabilitation in pediatric patients diagnosed with ED. Considering physical and radiographic characteristics hydrotic ectodermal was diagnosed. As clinical management, we opted for the installation of removable functional aesthetic maintainers, favoring the speech normality, swallowing, lip and lingual muscle tone and social development.
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Hair[ edit ] Individuals affected by an ED syndrome frequently have abnormalities of the hair follicles. Scalp and body hair may be thin, sparse, and very light in color, even though beard growth in affected males may be normal. The hair may grow very slowly or sporadically and it may be excessively fragile, curly, or even twisted. Kinky hair is also a possibility. Nails[ edit ] Fingernails and toenails may be thick, abnormally shaped, discolored, ridged, slow-growing, or brittle.
The cuticles may be prone to infections. Skin[ edit ] The skin may be lightly pigmented. Skin sustaining injury may grow back permanently hypo-pigmented. In some cases, red or brown pigmentation may be present.
Skin can be prone to rashes or infections and can be thick over the palms and soles. Care must be taken to prevent cracking, bleeding, and infection. Sweat glands[ edit ] Individuals affected by certain ED syndromes cannot perspire. Their sweat glands may function abnormally or may not have developed at all because of inactive proteins in the sweat glands. Without normal sweat production, the body cannot regulate temperature properly.
Therefore, overheating is a common problem, especially during hot weather. Access to cool environments is important. Note that the upper incisors have been restored with composite material to disguise their original conical shape. Salivary glands[ edit ] Several studies have examined salivary flow rate in individuals and found parotid and submandibular salivary flow ranging from 5 to 15 times lower than average. This is consistent with the salivary glands being of ectodermal origin, although some findings have suggested that there is also mesodermal input.
The enamel may also be defective. Cosmetic dental treatment is almost always necessary and children may need dentures as early as two years of age. Multiple denture replacements are often needed as the child grows, and dental implants may be an option in adolescence, once the jaw is fully grown.
Nowadays the option of extracting the teeth and substituting them with dental implants is quite common. Orthodontic treatment also may be necessary. Because dental treatment is complex, a multi-disciplinary approach is best.
In some types of ED, abnormal development of parts of the eye can result in dryness of the eye, cataracts, and vision defects. Professional eye care can help minimize the effects of ED on vision. Similarly, abnormalities in the development of the ear may cause hearing problems. Respiratory infections can be more common because the normal protective secretions of the mouth and nose are not present. Precautions must be taken to limit infections.
There are several different types with distinct genetic causes:.